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Archive for December 11, 2010

CROSS APPLY vs OUTER APPLY operators in SQL Server

December 11, 2010 7 comments

In my [previous post] we learnt about UDFs, their types and implementations. UDFs can be used in queries at column level, table levels and on column definition while creating tables.

They can also be joined with other tables, but not by simple joins. They use special join-keyword called APPLY operator.
 

According to MS BOL an APPLY operator allows you to invoke a table-valued function for each row returned by an outer table expression of a query. The table-valued function acts as the right input and the outer table expression acts as the left input. The right input is evaluated for each row from the left input and the rows produced are combined for the final output. The list of columns produced by the APPLY operator is the set of columns in the left input followed by the list of columns returned by the right input.
 

–> There are 2 forms of APPLY operators:

1. CROSS APPLY acts as INNER JOIN, returns only rows from the outer table that produce a result set from the table-valued function.

2. OUTER APPLY acts as OUTER JOIN, returns both rows that produce a result set, and rows that do not, with NULL values in the columns produced by the table-valued function.
 

Lets take 2 tables: Person.Contact & Sales.SalesOrderHeader

SELECT * FROM Person.Contact WHERE ContactID = 100
SELECT * FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader WHERE ContactID = 100

You have a UDF that returns Sales Order Details of a Particular Contact. Now you want to use that UDF to know what all Contacts have Ordered what with other details, let’s see:
 

–> First creating a UDF to test with JOINS & APPLY:

--// Create Multiline UserDefinedFunction [dbo].[ufn_mtv_GetContactSales]
SET ANSI_NULLS ON
GO
SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON
GO
CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ufn_mtv_GetContactSales](@ContactID int)
RETURNS @retSalesInfo TABLE (
    [ContactID] INT NOT NULL,
	[SalesOrderID] INT NULL,
	[ProductID] INT NULL,
	[Name] NVARCHAR(50) NULL,
    [OrderDate] DATETIME NULL,
    [DueDate] DATETIME NULL,
    [ShipDate] DATETIME NULL,
	[TotalDue] MONEY NULL,
    [Status] TINYINT NULL,
	[SalesPersonID] INT NULL)
AS
BEGIN
    IF @ContactID IS NOT NULL
    BEGIN
        INSERT @retSalesInfo
		SELECT h.[ContactID], h.[SalesOrderID], p.[ProductID], p.[Name], h.[OrderDate], h.[DueDate],
			   h.[ShipDate], h.[TotalDue], h.[Status], h.[SalesPersonID]
		FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader AS h
		JOIN Sales.SalesOrderDetail AS d ON d.SalesOrderID = h.SalesOrderID
		JOIN Production.Product AS p ON p.ProductID = d.ProductID
		WHERE ContactID = @ContactID
    END
	-- Return the recordsets
    RETURN
END

--// Test the UDF
SELECT * FROM dbo.ufn_mtv_GetContactSales(100)

 

–> Trying to JOIN UDF with a table, problem is you need to apply a parameter and it can’t be a column, but a value:

--// UDF with JOIN, try it out!!!
SELECT *
FROM Person.Contact c
JOIN dbo.ufn_mtv_GetContactSales(100) f -- You will have to pass the ContactID parameter, so no use of joining.
ON f.ContactID = c.ContactID

 

–> Testing with CROSS APPLY:

--// CROSS APPLY -- 279 records (All matched records, 1 missing out of 280)
SELECT c.[ContactID], c.[FirstName], c.[LastName], c.[EmailAddress], c.[Phone], s.*
FROM Person.Contact AS c
CROSS APPLY ufn_mtv_GetContactSales(c.ContactID) AS s
WHERE c.ContactID between 100 and 105

-- Same equivalent query without cross apply, using JOINs -- 279 records
SELECT c.[ContactID], c.[FirstName], c.[LastName], c.[EmailAddress], c.[Phone],
	   h.[ContactID], h.[SalesOrderID], p.[ProductID], p.[Name], h.[OrderDate], h.[DueDate],
	   h.[ShipDate], h.[TotalDue], h.[Status], h.[SalesPersonID]
FROM Person.Contact AS c
JOIN Sales.SalesOrderHeader AS h ON c.ContactID = h.ContactID
JOIN Sales.SalesOrderDetail AS d ON d.SalesOrderID = h.SalesOrderID
JOIN Production.Product AS p ON p.ProductID = d.ProductID
WHERE c.ContactID between 100 and 105

 

–> Testing with OUTER APPLY:

--// OUTER APPLY -- 280 records (All 280 records with 1 not matched)
SELECT c.[ContactID], c.[FirstName], c.[LastName], c.[EmailAddress], c.[Phone], s.*
FROM Person.Contact AS c
OUTER APPLY ufn_mtv_GetContactSales(c.ContactID) AS s
WHERE c.ContactID between 100 and 105

-- Same equivalent query without OUTER APPLY, using LEFT JOINs -- 280 records
SELECT c.[ContactID], c.[FirstName], c.[LastName], c.[EmailAddress], c.[Phone],
	   h.[ContactID], h.[SalesOrderID], p.[ProductID], p.[Name], h.[OrderDate], h.[DueDate],
	   h.[ShipDate], h.[TotalDue], h.[Status], h.[SalesPersonID]
FROM Person.Contact AS c
LEFT JOIN Sales.SalesOrderHeader AS h ON c.ContactID = h.ContactID
LEFT JOIN Sales.SalesOrderDetail AS d ON d.SalesOrderID = h.SalesOrderID
LEFT JOIN Production.Product AS p ON p.ProductID = d.ProductID
WHERE c.ContactID between 100 and 105

 

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SQL Basics – UDF | User Defined Functions – Scalar, Table Valued (TVF), MultiStatement (MTVF)

December 11, 2010 7 comments

UDF or User Defined Functions are a set or batch of code where one can apply any SQL logic and return a single scalar value or a record set.

According to MS BOL UDFs are the subroutines made up of one or more Transact-SQL statements that can be used to encapsulate code for reuse. These reusable subroutines can be used as:
– In TSQL SELECT statements at column level.
– To create parametrized view or improve the functionality of in indexed view.
– To define a column and CHECK constraints while creating a table.
– To replace a stored procedures and views.
– Join complex logic with a table where a stored procedure fails.
– Faster execution like Stored procedures, reduce compliation cost by caching the execution query plans.

Apart from the benefits UDF’s has certain limitations:
– Can not modify any database objects, limited to update table variables only.
– Can not contain the new OUTPUT clause.
– Can only call extended stored procedures, no other procedures.
– Can not define TRY-CATCH block.
– Some built-in functions are not allowed here, like:GETDATE(), because GETDATE is non-deterministic as its value changes every time it is called. On the other hand DATEADD() is allowed as it is deterministic, because it will return same result when called with same argument values.

A UDF can take 0 or upto 1024 parameters and returns either a scalar value or a table record set depending on its type.
SQL Server supports mainly 3 types of UDFs:
1. Scalar function
2. Inline table-valued function
3. Multistatement table-valued function

1. Scalar function: Returns a single value of any datatype except text, ntext, image, cursor & timestamp.

-- Example:
--// Create Scalar UDF [dbo].[ufn_GetContactOrders]
SET ANSI_NULLS ON
GO
SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON
GO
CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ufn_GetContactOrders](@ContactID int)
RETURNS varchar(500)
AS
BEGIN
	DECLARE @Orders varchar(500)

	SELECT @Orders = COALESCE(@Orders + ', ', '') + CAST(SalesOrderID as varchar(10))
	FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader
	WHERE ContactID = @ContactID

	RETURN (@Orders)
END

--// Usage:
-- Used at COLUMN level with SELECT
SELECT ContactID, dbo.ufn_GetContactOrders(ContactID) FROM Person.Contact
WHERE ContactID between 100 and 105 -- Output below

-- Used while defining a computed column while creating a table.
CREATE TABLE tempCustOrders (CustID int, Orders as (dbo.ufn_GetContactOrders(CustID)))

INSERT INTO tempCustOrders (CustID)
SELECT ContactID FROM Person.Contact
WHERE ContactID between 100 and 105

SELECT * FROM tempCustOrders -- Output below

DROP TABLE tempCustOrders
Output of both the selects above:
ContactID	OrdersCSV
100		51702, 57021, 63139, 69398
101		47431, 48369, 49528, 50744, 53589, 59017, 65279, 71899
102		43874, 44519, 46989, 48013, 49130, 50274, 51807, 57113, 63162, 69495
103		43691, 44315, 45072, 45811, 46663, 47715, 48787, 49887, 51144, 55310, 61247, 67318
104		43866, 44511, 45295, 46052, 46973, 47998, 49112, 50215, 51723, 57109, 63158, 69420
105		NULL

Note: If this was a temp(#) table then the function also needs to be created in tempdb, cause the temp table belongs to tempdb. The tables in function should also have the database name prefixed, i.e. [AdventureWorks].[Sales].[SalesOrderHeader]

2. Inline table-valued function: Returns a table i.e. a record-set. The function body contains just a single TSQL statement, which results to a record-set and is returned from here.

-- Example:
--// Create Inline table-valued UDF [dbo].[ufn_itv_GetContactSales]
SET ANSI_NULLS ON
GO
SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON
GO
CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ufn_itv_GetContactSales](@ContactID int)
RETURNS TABLE
AS
RETURN (
	SELECT h.[ContactID], h.[SalesOrderID], p.[ProductID], p.[Name], h.[OrderDate], h.[DueDate],
	h.[ShipDate], h.[TotalDue], h.[Status], h.[SalesPersonID]
	FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader AS h
	JOIN Sales.SalesOrderDetail AS d ON d.SalesOrderID = h.SalesOrderID
	JOIN Production.Product AS p ON p.ProductID = d.ProductID
	WHERE ContactID = @ContactID )

--// Usage:
SELECT * FROM ufn_itv_GetContactSales(100)

3. Multistatement table-valued function: Also returns a table (record-set) but can contain multiple TSQL statements or scripts and is defined in BEGIN END block. The final set of rows are then returned from here.

-- Example:
--// Create Multistatement table-valued UDF [dbo].[ufn_mtv_GetContactSales]
SET ANSI_NULLS ON
GO
SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON
GO
CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ufn_mtv_GetContactSales](@ContactID int)
RETURNS @retSalesInfo TABLE (
	[ContactID] INT NOT NULL,
	[SalesOrderID] INT NULL,
	[ProductID] INT NULL,
	[Name] NVARCHAR(50) NULL,
	[OrderDate] DATETIME NULL,
	[DueDate] DATETIME NULL,
	[ShipDate] DATETIME NULL,
	[TotalDue] MONEY NULL,
	[Status] TINYINT NULL,
	[SalesPersonID] INT NULL)
AS
BEGIN
	IF @ContactID IS NOT NULL
	BEGIN
		INSERT @retSalesInfo
		SELECT h.[ContactID], h.[SalesOrderID], p.[ProductID], p.[Name], h.[OrderDate], h.[DueDate],
			   h.[ShipDate], h.[TotalDue], h.[Status], h.[SalesPersonID]
		FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader AS h
		JOIN Sales.SalesOrderDetail AS d ON d.SalesOrderID = h.SalesOrderID
		JOIN Production.Product AS p ON p.ProductID = d.ProductID
		WHERE ContactID = @ContactID
	END
	-- Return the recordsets
	RETURN
END

--// Usage:
SELECT * FROM ufn_mtv_GetContactSales(100)

— Output:

TVF & MVF output

TVF & MVF output

More MSDN & MS BOL links:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa175085(SQL.80).aspx
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa214363(SQL.80).aspx
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms186755.aspx
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms191007.aspx
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc164062.aspx