Home > Differences, Misconception > SQL Trivia – Difference between COUNT(*) and COUNT(1)

SQL Trivia – Difference between COUNT(*) and COUNT(1)

Yesterday I was having a discussion with one of the Analyst regarding an item we were going to ship in the release. And we tried to check and validate the data if it was getting populated correctly or not. To just get the count-diff of records in pre & post release I used this Query:


To my surprise he mentioned to use COUNT(1) instead of COUNT(*), and the reason he cited was that it runs faster as it uses one column and COUNT(*) uses all columns. It was like a weird feeling, what to say… and I just mentioned “It’s not, and both are same”. He was adamant and disagreed with me. So I just kept quite and keep on using COUNT(*) 🙂

But are they really same or different? Functionally? Performance wise? or by any other means?

Let’s check both of them.

The MSDN BoL lists the syntax as COUNT ( { [ [ ALL | DISTINCT ] expression ] | * } )

So, if you specify any numeric value it come under the expression option above.

Let’s try to pass the value as 1/0, if SQL engine uses this value it would definitely throw a “divide by zero” error:

SELECT COUNT(1/0) FROM [Person].[Person]

… but it does not. Because it just ignores the value while taking counts. So, both * and 1 or any other number is same.

–> Ok, let’s check the Query plans:

count(star) vs count(1).

and there was no difference between the Query plans created by them, both have same query cost of 50%.

–> These are very simple and small queries so the above plan might be trivial and thus may have come out same or similar.

So, let’s check more, like the PROFILE stats:


SELECT COUNT(*) FROM [Sales].[SalesOrderDetail]

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM [Sales].[SalesOrderDetail]


If you check the results below, the PROFILE data of both the queries shows COUNT(*), so the SQL engine converts COUNT(1) to COUNT(*) internally.

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM [Sales].[SalesOrderDetail]
  |--Compute Scalar(DEFINE:([Expr1002]=CONVERT_IMPLICIT(int,[Expr1003],0)))
       |--Stream Aggregate(DEFINE:([Expr1003]=Count(*)))
            |--Index Scan(OBJECT:([AdventureWorks2014].[Sales].[SalesOrderDetail].[IX_SalesOrderDetail_ProductID]))

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM [Sales].[SalesOrderDetail]
  |--Compute Scalar(DEFINE:([Expr1002]=CONVERT_IMPLICIT(int,[Expr1003],0)))
       |--Stream Aggregate(DEFINE:([Expr1003]=Count(*)))
            |--Index Scan(OBJECT:([AdventureWorks2014].[Sales].[SalesOrderDetail].[IX_SalesOrderDetail_ProductID]))


–> On checking the I/O stats there is no difference between them:

Table 'SalesOrderDetail'. Scan count 1, logical reads 276, physical reads 1, 
 read-ahead reads 288, lob logical reads 0, lob physical reads 0, lob read-ahead reads 0.

Table 'SalesOrderDetail'. Scan count 1, logical reads 276, physical reads 0, 
 read-ahead reads 0, lob logical reads 0, lob physical reads 0, lob read-ahead reads 0.

Both the queries does reads of 276 pages, no matter they did logical/physical/read-ahead reads here. Check difference b/w logical/physical/read-ahead reads.

So, we can clearly and without any doubt say that both COUNT(*) & COUNT(1) are same and equivalent.

There are few other things in SQL Server that are functionally equivalent, like DECIMAL & NUMERIC datatypes, check here: Difference b/w DECIMAL & NUMERIC datatypes.

Categories: Differences, Misconception Tags:
  1. Patt
    January 17, 2017 at 8:04 pm

    That’s quite an interesting topic to ponder about. I wonder if the analyst perhaps mixed up Count(1) with Count({expression}).

    I would say what actually nails the conclusion that Count(1) is the same as Count() is when the SQL engine convert Count(1) to Count() internally.

  2. January 13, 2016 at 10:11 pm

    Reblogged this on SQL Server Consultation.

  3. January 13, 2016 at 8:36 am

    Interesting information.

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