Posts Tagged ‘Hadoop’

Hadoop/HDFS storage types, formats and internals – Text, Parquet, ORC, Avro

December 30, 2018 1 comment

HDFS or Hadoop Distributed File System is the distributed file system provided by the Hadoop Big Data platform. The primary objective of HDFS is to store data reliably even in the presence of node failures in the cluster. This is facilitated with the help of data replication across different racks in the cluster infrastructure. These files stored in HDFS system are used for further data processing by different data processing engines like Hadoop Map-Reduce, Hive, Spark, Impala, Pig etc.

–> Here we will talk about different types of file formats supported in HDFS:

1. Text (CSV, TSV, JSON): These are the flat file format which could be used with the Hadoop system as a storage format. However these format do not contain the self inherited Schema. Thus with this the developer using any processing engine have to apply schema while reading these file formats.

2. Parquet: file format is the Columnar oriented format in the Hadoop ecosystem. Parquet stores the binary data column wise, which brings following benefits:
– Less storage, efficient Compression resulting in Storage optimization, as the same data type is residing adjacent to each other. That helps in compressing the data better hence provide storage optimization.
– Increased query performance as entire row needs not to be loaded in the memory.

Parquet file format can be used with any Hadoop ecosystem like: Hive, Impala, Pig, Spark, etc.

3. ORC: stands for Optimized Row Columnar, which is a Columnar oriented storage format. ORC is primarily used in the Hive world and gives better performance with Hive based data retrievals because Hive has a vectorized ORC reader. Schema is self contained in the file as part of the footer. Because of the column oriented nature it provide better compression ratio and faster reads.

4. Avro: is the Row oriented storage format, and make a perfect use case for write heavy applications. The schema is self contained with in the file in the form of JSON, which help in achieving efficient schema evolution.

–> Now, Lets take a deep dive and look at these file format through a series of videos below:


Author/Speaker Bio: Viresh Kumar is a v-blogger and an expert in Big Data, Hadoop and Cloud world. He has an experience of ~14 years in the Data Platform industry.


Book: Hadoop – The Definitive Guide: Storage and Analysis at Internet Scale


An introduction to Azure HDInsight – Microsoft’s Big-Data/Hadoop solution on Azure

March 3, 2018 1 comment

The Microsoft Azure portal has all the details on HDInsight and is very vast. Here in this post I’ve simply curated main and important stuff for myself and others to get started with HDInsight.

Azure HDInsight is a standard Apache Hadoop distribution offered as a managed service on Microsoft Azure. It is based on the Hortonworks Data Platform (HDP) and provisioned as clusters on Azure. The clusters can be created on your choice of Windows or Linux Servers.

What HDInsight offers:

1. Provides an end-to-end SLA on all your production workloads.
2. Enables you to scale workloads up or down anytime and only pay for what you use.
3. Protects and Secure your data as per government compliance.
4. Provide Log Analytics to monitor your clusters.
5. Globally availability in multiple regions.
6. Provides various productivity tools for development.

HDInsight enables a broad range of scenarios such as: Process & Analyze Big-Data, Batch Processing, in-memory processing ETL, Data Warehousing, Machine Learning, IoT and more, by using a broad spectrum of open-source frameworks, like Hadoop, Spark, Kafka, HBase, Hive, Storm and R Server.


HDInsight Cluster Types:

1. Hadoop: A simple Map-Reduce programming model to process and analyze batch data in parallel. [Apache Hadoop]

2. Spark: An open-source, parallel-processing framework that supports in-memory processing to boost the performance of big-data analysis applications. [Apache Spark]

3. HBase: A NoSQL database built on Hadoop that provides random access and strong consistency for large amounts of unstructured and semi-structured data. [Apache HBase]

4. R Server: A server for hosting and managing parallel, distributed R processes. It provides data scientists, statisticians, and R programmers with on-demand access to scalable, distributed methods of analytics on HDInsight.

5. Storm: A distributed, real-time computation system for processing large streams of data fast. [Apache Storm]

6. Hive: or Interactive Query (AKA: Live Long and Process), In-memory caching for interactive and faster Hive queries. [Apache Hive]

7. Kafka: An open-source platform that’s used for building streaming data pipelines and applications. Kafka also provides message-queue functionality that allows you to publish and subscribe to data streams. [Apache Kafka]

Other Components available with HDInsight:

Ambari Avro HCatalog
Mahout MapReduce YARN
Phoenix Pig Sqoop
Tez Oozie ZooKeeper

Storage options in HDInsight:

1. Azure Blob Store

2. Azure Data Lake Store

Azure Data Lake Store vs Azure Blob Storage

Role Based Security:

Owner Lets you manage everything
Contributor Lets you manage everything except access to resources
Reader Lets you view everything but not make changes
User Access Administrator Lets you manage user access to Azure resources


HDInsight security:

[Overview and more details on Microsoft Docs]